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绒毛膜癌 - 妇科 - CCUN护理网 - 中国第一护理门户网站

绒毛膜癌

绒毛膜癌是一种高度恶性的肿瘤,继发于葡萄胎、流产或足月分娩以后。少数可发生于异位妊娠后,多为生育年龄妇女。偶尔发生于未婚妇女的卵巢称为原发性绒毛膜癌。应用化学药物治疗,使绒癌的预后有了显著的改观。
  • 绒毛膜癌的临床表现

    临床特点
    凡葡萄胎,产后或流产后不规则阴道流血,子宫不能如期复旧,较大而软,应想到绒毛膜癌的可能。

  • 绒毛膜癌发病原因

    绝大多数绒癌与妊娠有关,分别继发于葡萄胎、流产或正常分娩之后。也有报道认为可以直接由孕卵发生,甚至极个别来自畸胎瘤内所含卵子的滋养叶成分。发生于输卵管妊娠或腹腔妊娠者极少见。
    绒癌多发生在子宫,但也有子宫内未发现原发病灶而只有转移灶出现,子宫绒癌可形成单个或多个宫壁肿瘤,呈深红、紫或棕褐色,直径2~10cm,为出血坏死组织,肿瘤可突入宫腔,入侵宫壁或突出于浆膜层,质脆,极易出血,宫旁静脉中往往发现癌栓,卵巢可形成多囊性黄素囊肿。
    组织学上绒癌与一般癌肿有很大区别,绒癌没有一般所固有的结缔组织性间质细胞,只有滋养细胞、血块及凝固性坏死组织物构成的坏死灶,也没有固有的血管,癌细胞直接与宿主血液接触取得营养。在癌灶中心部,往往找不到癌细胞,越是靠近边缘部,肿瘤细胞越明显,但见不到绒毛结构,只能见到成团的滋养细胞。
     

  • 绒毛膜癌治病原则

    1.治疗原则
    以化疗为主,手术为辅,年轻未育者尽可能不切除子宫,以保留生育功能,如不得已切除子宫,卵巢仍可保留。

    2.化学药物治疗
    药物的选择:在一般早期病例,可单用一种药物,以5—氟尿嘧啶(5-Fu)为首选。如病情急或已到晚期、则需二种或二种以上药物合用。常用的为5-Fu加更生霉素。5-Fu、ksm疗效最好,副作用小、对肺、消化道、泌尿道及生殖道的转移均有效。可用作静脉给药,动脉灌注,腔内或瘤内注射,也可口服。

    3.手术治疗
    自证明化学药物治疗有较多的效果后,手术治疗已不如过去重要,但是在有些情况下,如病灶大,估计化疗不能完全征服者或治疗过程中HCG下降缓慢者;子宫穿孔肝内转移灶出血等,为挽救病人生命,手术仍然是治疗绒毛膜癌的重要方法。一般行次广泛子宫切除及双侧附件大网膜及宫旁静脉丛及卵巢静脉丛切除。

    4.放射治疗
    绒毛膜癌及恶性葡萄胎对放疗敏感。若肺部、盆腔、腹腔等孤立性病灶,手术有困难或经多个疗程化疗消退不明显者,可考虑放射治疗,用60钴或深部x线照射,脑转移者可行全脑照射,不能切除的阴道转移结节亦可用镭局部治疗。

    5.转移灶的治疗
    (1)外阴及阴道出血的处理:转移瘤未破溃,除5-Fu静滴外,可加用5-Fu转移瘤内注射。若转移瘤已破溃出血,可用纱布条压迫止血,或纱布条上涂上无菌出血药物,如云南白药也有效。如经过以上方法仍不能止血时,可考虑手术切除或缝合。
    (2)腹腔内出血的处理如有急性明显腹腔内出血时,应立即剖腹手术,切除子宫。术后继续全身化疗。
    (3)脑转移的处理①全身化疗。首选药物是常用的5-Fu与ksm联合化疗;②对症治疗,使化疗发挥作用,降低颅内压用甘露醇或山梨醇,半小时滴完;③镇静控制抽搐可用安定,巴比妥或杜冷丁等药物;④防止并发症昏迷、抽搐跌倒、咬伤、吸入性肺炎等,要做好护理工作,同时要及时纠正电解质紊乱及酸碱平衡失调。
    (4)咯血的处理一旦发生大咯血时,处理较困难,目前尚无理想的处理方法。①用脑垂体后叶素加入5%葡萄糖液静滴;②出血药物可用止血芳酸及对羧基苄胺等;③手术,如能确定出血部位,条件及时间许可,考虑急诊肺叶切除。同时注意抗休克,纠正贫血。抗感染及防止咯血而引起窒息。

  • 绒毛膜癌的用药指导

  • 绒毛膜癌的保健品

  • 绒毛膜癌的相关资讯